Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh Rasul Allah (saw) was the seal of the prophets, the final revelation from the one God.
During his lifetime he was a religious, political, and military leader originally from Mecca who unified Arabia into a single religious polity under Islam. He is a messenger and prophet of God and, the last prophet sent by God for mankind. He is the restorer of an unaltered original monotheistic faith of Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and other prophets.
Born in about 570 CE in the Arabian city of Mecca, he was orphaned at an early age and brought up under the care of his uncle Abu Talib. He later worked mostly as a merchant, as well as a shepherd, and was first married by age 25. Being in the habit of periodically retreating to a cave in the surrounding mountains for several nights of seclusion and prayer, he later reported that it was there, at age 40,that he received his first revelation from God. Three years after this event Muhammad (saw) started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that “God is One”, that complete “surrender” to Him (lit. islām) is the only way acceptable to God, and that he himself was a prophet and messenger of God, in the same lineage as his predecessors Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and others.
Muhammad (saw) gained few followers early on, and was met with hostility from some Meccan tribes; he and his followers were treated harshly. To escape persecution, Muhammad (saw) sent some of his followers to Abyssinia before he and his followers in Mecca migrated to Medina (then known as Yathrib) in the year 622CE. This event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar, which is also known as the Hijri Calendar. In Medina, Muhammad (saw) united the tribes under the Constitution of Medina. After eight years of fighting with the Meccan tribes, his followers, who by then had grown to 10,000, took control of Mecca in the a peaceful Conquest of Mecca. He (saw) destroyed the pagan idols in the city and then sent his followers out to destroy all of the remaining pagan temples in Eastern Arabia.
In 632, a few months after returning to Medina from The Farewell Pilgrimage, Muhammad (saw) fell ill and died. By the time of his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam, he had completed the mission which Allah (swt) had charged him with. Although the exact day of his (saw) passing is disputed by scholars, in this posting I am using the date agreed by many and based in the sira written by Jabeer.
The revelations (or Ayah, lit. “Signs [of God]”) — which Muhammad (saw) reported receiving until his death — form the verses of the Quran, the “Word of God” and around which the religion is based. Besides the Quran, Muhammad’s (saw) life (sira) and traditions (sunnah) are also upheld as the sources of Islamic law. They discuss Muhammad (saw) and other prophets of Islam with reverence, adding the phrase peace be upon him whenever their names are mentioned.